Written by Ana Canteli on 20 Marzo 2023
ISO 27001 is a standard that provides a framework to help c effectively protect and manage their information, including confidential customer and company data. It is widely used worldwide, especially by organizations that handle large volumes of sensitive information or must demonstrate that they meet internationally recognized security standards. ISO 27001 certification can help organizations improve customer confidence and reputation and reduce information security risks.
ISO 27001, the leading standard in this series, sets out the requirements for an information security management system (ISMS) and provides a framework for identifying, assessing, and addressing risks. The other standards in the ISO 27000 series provide guidance and recommendations for implementing the ISMS.
An information security management system (ISMS) is a working environment that enables organizations to define and establish policies, procedures, and controls to protect their information and minimize security-related risks. The ISMS aims to ensure data availability, integrity, and confidentiality.
An effective ISMS requires careful planning and ongoing management. Implementing the Information Security Management System includes identifying and assessing information security risks, defining and implementing controls to mitigate those risks, and continuous monitoring to ensure that the rules remain effective and adequate.
Benefits of ISO 27000
ISO 27000 is a set of standards designed worldwide to help organizations establish, implement and maintain an effective information security management system (ISMS). To this end, it provides the following:
- Information protection: ISO 27000 helps organizations identify and assess information security risks and establish security controls to mitigate them.
- Regulatory compliance: ISO 27000 helps companies comply with legal and regulatory requirements for information security. Many regulators and accreditation bodies require companies to comply with ISO 27000 to demonstrate a robust ISMS.
- Efficiency: Improves efficiency in information security management by providing a framework for systematic and structured management of security risks.
- Increases customer confidence: demonstrating that they take information security seriously and have an effective ISMS to protect it.
- Risk reduction: ISO 27000 helps companies identify and mitigate information security risks, which can reduce the financial, legal, and reputational risks associated with information security breaches.
ISO 27000 requirements for an information security management system
The requirements that must be fulfilled to establish an ISMS according to ISO 27001 are as follows:
- Risk analysis: A risk assessment must be performed to identify and evaluate the information security risks to which the company is exposed. The risk assessment must consider the information assets, threats, and vulnerabilities linked to the support.
- Security policy: An information security policy needs to be established to define the objectives and principles of the ISMS, and the organization's top management needs to show its commitment to this policy.
- Planning: The organization should establish clear objectives and goals for the ISMS and develop an action plan to achieve them. Planning should consider the security policy and the results of the risk assessment.
- Implementation: the security controls necessary to mitigate information security risks. They may include physical, technical, and organizational measures.
- Evaluation and review: The organization should regularly evaluate the ISMS to ensure that it is effective and adequate. Assessments should include a review of security controls, an evaluation of the performance of the ISMS, and the identification of necessary improvements.
- Continual improvement: The organization should continually improve the ISMS to ensure that it is effective and adequate. Continuous improvement may include implementing new security controls, improving existing ones, and reviewing the security policy and objectives of the ISMS.
Information Security Risks according to ISO 27000
These risks can be classified into the following categories:
- Unauthorized access risks: hacker attacks, password theft, and social engineering are examples of threats that can give rise to this type of risk.
- Data loss risks include organizational information being lost due to accidental deletion, hardware or software failure, or natural disasters. Risks can be physical, such as fire and earthquakes, or logical, such as data corruption.
- Data modification risks include the risk of the organization's information being unauthorized. It could consist of manipulating data in transit, such as email fraud, or managing stored data.
- Risks of service disruption: due to a cyber-attack or natural disaster. It can significantly impact the organization's ability to perform its operations.
- Fraud risks can include online fraud, identity theft, and data manipulation.
It is important to note that these risks can vary according to the activity sector and the entity's size. Therefore, organizations must conduct a risk assessment tailored to the specific risks to which they are exposed and develop appropriate strategies to mitigate them.
Identifying information security risks according to ISO 27000
These requirements are as follows:
- Asset identification: The organization must identify all information assets relevant to the ISMS. It may include information in electronic or physical format and both systems and applications.
- Identification of threats: that could affect the confidentiality, integrity, or availability of the information assets. Hazards can be internal or external, including human error, theft, sabotage, and natural disasters.
- Assessment of vulnerabilities: Can be exploited by previously identified threats. These may be weaknesses in the organization's systems or processes, which an attacker could exploit.
- Risk assessment: associated with the identified threats and vulnerabilities. It may involve using risk tables to rank and prioritize risks according to their impact and likelihood.
- Selection of controls: to mitigate the identified risks. These controls may include physical, technical, and organizational measures to protect information assets and reduce the risk of security incidents.
Risk identification is a continuous and dynamic process. The company should conduct periodic risk assessments and adjust its security controls to reflect changes in the information security environment.
Information security risk assessment according to ISO 27000
ISO 27001 establishes a process for addressing the information security risks identified in the risk assessment process. This process is carried out in four main stages, which include:
- Accept the risks: The organization must determine whether it can accept the identified risks, i.e., whether the chances are acceptable based on assessing impact and likelihood. If the risk is deemed acceptable, no further action is required.
- Avoid the risks: The organization must take action to avoid the identified risks. It may involve changes to the organization's processes or systems to eliminate or reduce the risks.
- Transfer the risks: The organization may transfer the risk to another party through insurance or service level agreements (SLAs) with third-party providers.
- Mitigate the risks: If the risks cannot be accepted, avoided, or transferred, the organization must implement security controls to mitigate the risk. Rules can be technical, physical, or administrative and should be selected according to the risk assessment results.
The risk treatment process is also continuous and dynamic. Documenting the risk treatment process and keeping up-to-date records of the actions taken is essential.
ISO 27000 and document management
Document management software can implement an information security system following the ISO 27000 standard in several ways. Some of them are:
- Document control: Document management software can help control the creation, review, approval, and distribution of ISMS-related documents. It ensures that documents are current and accessible only to authorized persons.
- Access control: Electronic document management software can implement access controls to ensure only authorized personnel can access confidential information. It includes restricting access to documents by specific users or groups of users.
- Workflow: Document management software can automate workflows related to document management. It ensures that documents follow a defined creation, review, approval, and distribution process.
- Version management: ISO 27001 requires version management to ensure access to the correct version of a file. The document management system can implement this requirement through version management and identifying changes and revisions.
- Secure storage: ISO 27001 requires that confidential documents are stored securely. Document management can help implement this by protecting documents with security measures such as data encryption and automated backups.
- Reporting: Document management software can generate reports, allowing the organization to track the progress of the ISMS implementation and take steps to improve the process.
- Auditing and monitoring: ISO 27001 requires auditing and monitoring to ensure that documents are managed securely and effectively. The electronic document manager can help implement this requirement by creating audit trails and tracking document changes.
- Risk management: ISO 27001 requires companies to conduct regular risk assessments to identify security threats and vulnerabilities in their systems and processes. Document management software can help implement this requirement by automating the risk assessment and identifying security controls to mitigate identified risks.
OpenKM's document management software has all the functionality required to implement the ISO 27000 standard successfully. Successful implementation of the standard involves a holistic approach that encompasses not only document management but also risk management, physical security, staff training, and awareness, among other aspects. To facilitate the training of users, OpenKM offers training courses adapted to the beneficiary's profile. If you would like to learn more about how to benefit from the advantages of this ISO standard or obtain certification, please get in touch with us.